Stake The Art of Case Study Research Triangulation

Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Chapter 7: Triangulation

  • Validation

    • "We assume the meaning of an observation is one thing, but additional observations give us grounds for revising our interpretation (p. 110)."
  • Triangulation Protocols

    • "Actually, since no two investigators ever interpret things entirely the same, whenever multiple investigators compare their data, there is some theory triangulation (p. 113)."
    • While we may think that triangulation leads us to one interpretation, or meaning, it actually provides us with multiple interpretations.
  • Member Checking


  • Denzin, N. (1984). The research act. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.