Costa & Garmston Cognitive Coaching, The Mediator's Toolbox
Costa, A. & Garmston, R. (2002). The mediator's toolbox. Cognitive coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools (2nd Ed.). Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.
• "A skillful coach uses certain well-crafted verbal and nonverbal tools to facilitate others' cognitive growth (p. 73)."
• Paralanguage is defined as the "...vocal qualities, body gestures, and other verbal and nonverbal behaviors that exist alongside the words we speak (p. 72)."
• "When confronted with conflicting verbal and nonverbal messages, humans inevitably choose the meaning behind the nonverbal behavior (p. 73)." (My thoughts - because we believe that those cues are more difficult to fake and therefore are more honest and true. They are more revealing of the truth.)
• Response behaviors are defined as the "...verbal responses to another person's communications (p.74)." There are five types:
o Silence - wait time and listening
o Verbal and nonverbal acknowledgment
o Paraphrasing including summarizing, organizing, shifting levels, empathizing
o Clarification by probing - looking for meaning and specificity
o Providing data and resources
• Structuring is defined as "establish(ing) the parameters of time, space, and purposes (p. 74)."
• Mediative questioning "helps coaches to construct and pose questions intended to engage thinking (p. 74)."
• "In addition to posture, gesture, and use of space, the intonation, rhythms, pacing, and volume of a person's voice all contribute important information about the communication (p. 74)."
• "Mirror neurons" - "The existence of 'mirror neurons' indicates that we are built to respond to what others in our environment do (p. 75)."
• People communicate using both verbal and nonverbal language. A good coach uses language and paralanguage to facilitate discussion.
• Entrainment is a type of rapport where one person mirrors another person's paralanguage. It's a synchronization of paralanguages. Entrainment creates an environment of comfort.
o "Silence is an indicator of a productive conference (p. 79)."
o Silence communicates respect, giving the other person time to think, process, and reflect. It usually produces a more thorough response.
o A wait time of longer than two seconds is preferable.
o Acknowledgments do not pass judgment but rather they signal to the speaker that the listener has heard and recognizes what has just been said.
o Usually indicated with verbal cues such as uh huhs and nonverbal cues such as head nodding.
o (My question - is it similar to perception checking?)
o When done well, it establishes rapport by signaling a safe environment.
o The listener is communicating to the speaker that his/her ideas have been heard.
o Do NOT use the pronoun I! Instead of "What I think I'm hearing you say is..." Try "You're suggesting... or You're proposing... or So you're wondering about... or Your hunch is that..."
o Vague nouns or pronouns
o Vague action words
o Rule words
o Universal quantifiers
o "When you say _____, which _____ do you mean? Or What do you mean by..."
• Data and Resources
o Present it nonjudgmentally
* "...the ultimate goal is to mediate another's capacity for self-coaching and self-modificaion...(p. 85)."