Grissom, Loeb, & Master 2013 Effective instructional time use for school leaders: Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals
Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective instructional time use for school leaders: Longitudinal evidence from observations of principals. Educational Researcher, 42(8), 433-444.
Summary: This study drew upon full day observations of 100 urban princiapls over a three year period. The study found that when principals time was spent broadly on instructional matters, there was no prediction of academic gain for students. Particularly, walkthroughs negatively predicted student growth. However, when principels invested their time in teaching coaching, evaluation, and developing the school's educaiton program, there were positive predictions in student gain.