Scheeler, McKinnon, & Stout Effects of BIE Technology

Scheeler, M. C., & McKinnon, K., & Stout, J. (2012). Effects of immediate feedback delivered via webcam and Bug-in-Ear technology on preservice teacher performance. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 35(1), pp. 77-90.

Summary: This quantitative study examined the effects of a university supervisor giving a pre-service teacher immediate feedback while teaching using a blue tooth technological headset. The need to use online technology occurred because of needing to supervise in remote locations. The supervise observed the preservice teacher through Skype, and she gave verbal feedback about the preservice teacher’s use of praise with students. The study found that the BIE technology was effective in delivering immediate feedback and that this immediate feedback was effective in correcting this specific behavior in the preservice teacher’s teaching.

Key Words: technology, feedback, supervision as evaluation, field experiences, supervisor, student teaching, supervision in teacher education


Conceptual Framework: Multiple baseline across participants design


Research Questions: Does immediate feedback delivered via webcam and Bluetooth technology increase a specific, effective teaching technique by preservice teachers in a practicum setting?




Dependent variable: percentage of three-term contingency trials (TTC)

“TTCs are basic learning units consisting of an antecedent (first term), student response (second term), and feedback to the student from the teacher (third term).”



Five preservice student teachers in special education

One university supervisor, also the researcher



  1. “…immediate feedback, delivered via webcam and Bluetooth technology, was successful in increasing a specific behavior, completion of TTC trials, in all five participants” (p. 84).
  2. “…all participants felt comfortable with wearing the BIE, it was not distracting while teaching and all indicated that they actually like receiving feedback on their teaching right away so they knew what to change and knew how to improve” (p. 84).
  3. “Findings of this study suggest that (a) immediate feedback delivered via technology increased a specific teaching technique more effectively than delayed feedback and (b) the intervention is an acceptable, nonintrusive way for observers to provide immediate feedback to teachers from remote locations” (pp. 84-86).
  4. BIE technology was efficient.
  5. “…participants perceived the intervention to be an acceptable way to receive feedback” (p. 87).


Additional Key Passages:

  • “Feedback may take the form of either praise for correct responses or error correction if the response is incorrect” (p. 81).
  • “Priase consisted of a positive statement linked to a specific behavior” (p. 81).”