How the Brain Learns

Zull, J. E. (2006). Key aspects of how the brain learns. In S. Johnson & K. Taylor (Eds.), The neuroscience of adult learning, pp. 3-10.

  • Neuroscience research tells us that there are four pillars of learning: gathering, reflecting, creating, and testing.
  • Accessing prior knowledge is critical in instruction: "Thus comprehension depends on the associations between new events and past events. The more past events available to be drawn on, the more powerful the meaning (p. 6)." Bad experiences can also be very powerful in a negative way because they can hinder learning.
  • "Adults are most likely to change when a new experience conflicts with their existing theories (p. 8)."