Nolan & Hoover Supervision and Evaluation: Developing and Implementing a Teacher Evaluation System
Nolan, J., & Hoover, L. A. (2005). Teacher supervision and evaluation: Theory into practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 8: Developing and Implementing an Evidence-Based Teacher Evaluation System (p. 199-218)
• Potential gap - No teacher evaluation program has been implemented as the authors suggest.
Basic Principles of Teacher Evaluation
• Evaluation is limited in its ability to make change. The most it can do is force a minimum level of competency.
• "When teachers are being evaluated, most of them are far from likely to innovate. They are much more likely to stand by their tried-and-true ways of teaching so that they can put their best foot forward. We believe that well-designed evaluation can accomplish two fundamental goals: (a) enable teachers and administrators to document the quality of teaching that currently exists and, in so doing, to identify areas of strength and potential areas for growth; and (b) ensure that all teachers within the system teach at a minimum level of competence or better (p. 202)."
• Teacher evaluation needs to have a well defined and agreed upon set of core beliefs.
• Principle 1: Teacher evaluation should be broad and comprehensive in nature, accounting for all of the duties that teachers are expected to perform.
o Current evaluation practices are too narrow and too restrictive, relying on only snap shots to make judgments about the whole picture.
o "Effective teacher evaluation systems are like artistic photographers: they use a combination of cameras and lenses to capture as much of the action as possible while still allowing the focus to be as close and precise as possible (p. 203)."
• Principle 2: Effective teacher evaluation systems make use of a wide variety of data sources to provide an accurate and reliable portrait of teacher performance.
o "Most teacher evaluation systems are inadequate in that they rely almost totally on administrative observation and rating as the only data source for capturing teacher performance (p. 203)."
• Principle 3: Well-qualified, trained administrators are the appropriate personnel to make summative judgments concerning teacher performance.
• Principle 4: Ongoing professional development focused on the teacher evaluation system must be provided for all professionals in the organization.
o When being evaluated, teachers should gather their own artifacts as data and evidence of their performance.
• Principle 5: The process used to develop and assess the teacher evaluation system should be participatory and open to representatives from various stakeholder groups.
• Principle 6: The process used to evaluate teacher performance should emphasize the use of professional judgment informed by a deep understanding of both the research on teaching and the specific teaching context.
o "...the very choice of the 'ideal model' represents a subjective judgment on the part of the system developers (p. 208)."
o "...the processes for making professional judgments about the quality of teaching should be informed by a deep understanding of both the research on teaching and the context in which the teaching takes place. Thus, decisions are based on the practices that the teacher employs and the outcomes (defined broadly) that result for the particular group being taught (p. 208)."
• Principle 7: The teacher's due process rights must be protected by the teacher evaluation system.
• Principle 8: The procedures used for the evaluation of veteran teachers who are performing at a satisfactory level or better should differ from the procedures used to evaluate preservice teachers, novice teachers, or veteran teachers whose performance is marginal or worse.
Substantive Standards for Teacher Evaluation
• The Search for the Universal Model of Effectiveness
o A brief history of teacher evaluation standards differs from models. Standards may be demonstrated by model(s).
• Existing Standards for Assessing Teaching
• Offers Nolan & Hoover's standards for teacher evaluation
Teacher Evaluation Procedures
• Teachers should be involved in the process by gathering the materials on which they will be evaluated. Administrators, however, make the final decision.
• Data Sources
o Administrator Observation - both formal and informal
• "By collecting evidence during both announced and unannounced visits, the administrator is more likely to capture a comprehensive picture of teacher performance (p. 221)."
o Teacher Materials
o Student Input
o Parent Input
• Both parents and students should not be asked to judge performance. Instead their responses should be restricted to feelings and perceptions with regard to interactions with the teacher.
o Documentation of Professional Growth
• "All professionals can choose how to grow, but they cannot choose not to grow (p. 224)."
o Student Learning Data
• Use student learning data with caution. It needs to be coupled with other data sources. Look at it over time and usually with groups of students rather than individual students.
• Compiling the Data
o Should happen over the course of the year.
• Making the Summative Evaluation
o The teacher should reflect on the materials. Teacher reflection is critical. It can promote growth.
o The administrator has the final say and may choose to add materials to the evidence source if s/he feels that they are imperative to an accurate depicture of the teacher's comprehensive performance. Adding should be done cautiously and only out of absolute necessity.
o Teachers then are permitted to respond to the summative evaluation in writing.