Nolan & Hoover Supervision and Evaluation of the Preservice Teacher

Nolan, J., & Hoover, L. A. (2005). Teacher supervision and evaluation: Theory into practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 9: Supervision and Evaluation of the Preservice Teacher

•    Student teachers wear two hats - student and teacher.

Why are Preservice Teachers a Special Case in Supervision and Evaluation?
•    Fuller, 1969 asserts that there are three stages of preservice teacher development - survival, task, and impact.
•    Student teachers need to acquire practical knowledge - the act of teaching.
•    "True collaboration between university-based and school-based supervisors requires a partnership marked by shared knowledge and goals, respect of one another's expertise, and equity in decision making (p. 244)."
•    Cooperating teachers and supervisors should see themselves " educators with a common purpose within a seamless K-16 system (p. 244)."

Supervising Preservice Teachers: Facilitating Practical Knowledge and Reflection
•    "The ultimate goal is to empower preservice teachersso that they assume greater personal responsibility for solving classroom dilemmas and for making informed decisions about their practice without direct supervisory intervention (p. 246)."
•    Reflection is important but difficult for student teachers to do. They should have many opportunities to reflect.
•    Engaging in the Preobservation Conference
    o    Figure 9.2 offers questions to ask preservice teachers during a preobservation conference.
    o    Written lesson plans can serve as the conversation catalyst for a preobservation conference.
    o    Data collection usually begins with a wide-angle lens. Determining foci for the data collection is eventually turned over to the teacher.
•    Engaging in the Postobservation Conference
    o    Definition of self-direction: "'Self-direction' includes making sense of observational data and subsequently using the data to make good decisions about teaching performance (p. 249)."
    o    Techniques to promote self-direction include :
        •    Explaining the data collection device
        •    Thinking aloud
        •    Using guided practice with scaffolding using data
    o    Levels of support operate on a spectrum from mild to severe:
        •    Collaborative strategy (mild)
        •    Think aloud (moderate)
        •    Directive (severe)
    o    The developmental level of the student teacher needs to match the level of support.
•    Using a Videotape Analysis
    o    Video is a powerful tool for analysis and reflection.
•    Encouraging Continuous Reflection Beyond the School Setting Through Journaling
    o    Holly (1989) "She explains, 'There is no 'Book of Teaching'; the teacher writes it along the way, drawing on learning from others, from theories and practices presented during teacher preparation; and beyond these, from the everyday realities of the classroom' (p. 9)" as quoted in Nolan & Hoover on p. 254.
    o    "A reflective journal can become a preservice teacher's personal guide to learning about teaching (p. 254)."
    o    "...cooperating teachers and university supervisors can nurture reflective practice more effectively when they are privy to the implicit thought processes that form the basis for preservice teachers' decision making (p. 255)."
    o    Reflection is a powerful tool to understand thinking and decision-making processes, but it needs to be nurtured in preservice teachers. It does not appear to come naturally.

Evaluation of Preservice Teacher Performance
•    Issues and Considerations
    o    "The university supervisor and the cooperating teacher don the hats of gatekeepers to the profession, protecting the interests of the countless number of children on whom the teacher candidate could have an impact (p. 256)."
    o    Supervisors and cooperating teachers must wear both hats of supervisor and evaluator, which can complicate the situation. If time is available, it is important to distinguish between the two so that the student teacher has an environment in which to take risks and grow.
•    Standards of Performance
    o    Evaluations should be based on performance not effort.
•    Evaluation Procedures
    o    Roles
        •    Cooperating teachers bring a better understanding of performance. Supervisors have a better understanding of how the student teacher thinks. When combined, an entire picture of the student teacher can be drawn.
    o    Data Sources
        •    "Support given to a preservice teacher in collecting, assembling, and reflecting upon artifacts for a portfolio that demonstrates professional performance shows natural blending of supervision and evaluation (p. 264)."
    o    Evaluation Process

Failure in Student Teaching
•    Failure in student teaching should not be a surprise. Shortcomings should be well documented. If failure is possible, a contract should be drawn and agreed upon by all parties. The contract should include dates by which certain behaviors should be met.

Chapter Summary
•    "The roles of university faculty and cooperating teachers require a shared understanding of the goals and processes involved in supervision and evaluation, a genuine recognition of and appreciation for one another's expertise, open lines of communication, and genuine collaboration (p. 266)."

•    "At this point in their practice, they (preservice teachers) have had little opportunity to discuss their own teaching behaviors or to interpret data collected during instruction (p. 248)." I wonder if my work with interns this fall (08) will make a difference in the future...
•    To further support the above wondering: "(Supervisors and cooperating teachers should previously have modeled various ways to collect and interpret data during pre and postconferences before the videotape assignment (p. 252)). Will my work in the fall of 2008 increase the developmental rate of interns?
•    Nolan & Hoover argue that the one-semester length of the student teaching experience negates the opportunity for supervision and evaluation to exist as separate entities. (p. 255) I wonder whether our PDS challenges that notion...Because of our yearlong experience, are we better able to differentiate between the two?

Cited Resources:
•    Fuller, F. F. (1969). Concerns of teachers: A developmental conceptualization. American Educational Research Journal, 6(2), 206-266.
•    Holly, M.L. (1989). Writing to grow: Keeping a personal-professional journal. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.