People and Supervision Marray Notes

Marray, B.A. (2006). People and supervision. In G. J. Kosmoski's Supervision (3rd Ed.) (pp. 33-68). Mequon, WI: Stylex Publishing Co., Inc.

  • Erik Erikson's (1959, 1963, 1968) Eight Stages of Development

    • Infancy - trust vs mistrust
    • Early Childhood - autonomy vs shame & doubt
    • Play Age - initiative vs guilt
    • School Age - industry vs inferiority
    • Adolescence - identity vs role confusion
    • Young Adulthood - intimacy vs isolation
    • Adulthood - generativity vs stagnation
    • Maturity - ego integrity vs despair

This author uses a figure on p. 56 to describe the supervisor - teacher behavior styles. She comments that different styles should be used with teachers who are at different levels. Meaning a teacher in a survival stage requires authoritarian supervision - supervision where the decisions are made for the teacher. A teacher at mastery level requires a transformational supervisor - one asks for teacher input yet coaches them through the process. A teacher at impact level requires facilitative supervision - supervision where risk taking and the use of professional expertise is encourage.

(MY THOUGHTS - I don't think that this author is using the term transformational leader in the same way that Sergiovanni & Starratt (I believe that's the citation) use it. Check w/Bern.)