People and Supervision Marray Notes
Marray, B.A. (2006). People and supervision. In G. J. Kosmoski's Supervision (3rd Ed.) (pp. 33-68). Mequon, WI: Stylex Publishing Co., Inc.
Erik Erikson's (1959, 1963, 1968) Eight Stages of Development
- Infancy - trust vs mistrust
- Early Childhood - autonomy vs shame & doubt
- Play Age - initiative vs guilt
- School Age - industry vs inferiority
- Adolescence - identity vs role confusion
- Young Adulthood - intimacy vs isolation
- Adulthood - generativity vs stagnation
- Maturity - ego integrity vs despair
This author uses a figure on p. 56 to describe the supervisor - teacher behavior styles. She comments that different styles should be used with teachers who are at different levels. Meaning a teacher in a survival stage requires authoritarian supervision - supervision where the decisions are made for the teacher. A teacher at mastery level requires a transformational supervisor - one asks for teacher input yet coaches them through the process. A teacher at impact level requires facilitative supervision - supervision where risk taking and the use of professional expertise is encourage.
(MY THOUGHTS - I don't think that this author is using the term transformational leader in the same way that Sergiovanni & Starratt (I believe that's the citation) use it. Check w/Bern.)