Supervising Student Teachers
Henry, M. A. (1995). Supervising student teachers: A new paradigm. In G. A. Slick (Ed.), Making the difference for teachers: The field experience in actual practice (p. 19-31). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
· "Additionally, the cooperating teacher works in virtual isolation from other supervisors. The only contact with other supervisors or professionals will probably be with college or university personnel, who will make an occasional visit or phone call (p. 20)."
· Necessary Conditions for Supervision and Evaluation to Exist Simultaneously
o Good distinction: "Supervision is collegial and formative, focusing on such factors as classroom interaction, instruction, and student learning. Evaluation is based on judgment from a superior and is summative in nature. It concentrates on such factors as quality control and effective performance on a predetermined set of criteria. It serves as documentation for administrative decisions, which, in the case of student teachers, are the determination of a grade (p. 20)."
o The role of evaluator: "Such a role can create suspicion and apprehension on the part of the student teacher in spite of efforts to downplay the significance of the role (p. 21)." I wonder what evidence they have to support this statement.
o Some of these are supervisory practices and some are evaluative: "A cooperative teacher must work around this hindrance to provide a daily program of formative growth for the student teacher. This involves such familiar supervisory procedures as providing objective analysis of a lesson, conferencing, structuring in-class and out-of-class experiences, and constantly urging the student teacher to engage in reflection (p. 21)."
o The author believes that a supervisor can engage in both roles of supervisor and evaluator if certain characteristics are present: (Nolan (1990) would disagree)
§ Different criteria for supervision and evaluation
§ The student is aware of when the supervisor is enacting which one
· Determining the Best Approaches for Supervision and Evaluation
o The author draws upon Carl Glickman's (1990) work on developmental supervision work. He discusses four quadrants and gives strategies for working with student teachers who are displaying behaviors in these four quadrants.
o Quadrant 1 - Low Commitment and Low Abstraction
o Quadrant 2 - High Commitment and Low Abstraction
o Quadrant 3 - High Abstraction and Low Commitment
o Quadrant 4 - High Abstraction and High Commitment
o The author also talks about strategies for evaluating student teachers.
o Directive is different from evaluative statements. Therefore a supervisory approaches which is different from an evaluative approach.
· Making It Work
o Provide Effective Feedback
o Criteria Should Be Known and Applied in an Understandable Manner
o It requires a skilled supervisor in observation techniques and conferencing.
§ "Supervisors and student teachers need time to discuss personal and professional concerns throughout the clinical experience; supervisors must be effective and skillful in management and teaching techniques so that a student teacher can be coached through observation, discussion, and modeling; and supervisors need to critique student teacher behaviors in a positive manner (p. 29)."
o Stress Good Human Relationships
o The authors suggest training. PDS says job-embedded. What's the evidence?