Supervision in Teacher Education
McIntyre, D. J., & Byrd, D. M. (1998). Supervision in teacher education. In G. R. Firth & E. F. Pajak (Eds.), Handbook of research on school supervision (pp. 409-427). New York: Macmillan.
Summary: The authors address the research in teacher education with regard to supervision. With regard to my research agenda, they note that the literature on the professional development of supervision is limited with only a few studies discussing training, a form of professional development, and mostly with regard to the training of cooperating teachers as supervisors and graduate students as supervisors.
Theoretical Framework for Teacher Education and Supervision
· Emerging Unifying Theoretical Frameworks
· Constructivism, Reflective Teachers, and Supervision
o Supervision of teacher candidates is a critical mechanism for developing reflective practitioners.
Relations Within the Supervisory Triad
· "Therefore, although triads of student teachers, cooperating teachers, and college supervisors work together in productive ways every day, their interactions are not without tension and some angst (p. 410)."
· Cooperating Teachers
o "These studies on modeling point out that students need to observe and to model the behaviors of cooperating teachers if they are to gain the maximum benefits from their cooperating teachers' experience and knowledge (p. 413)."
o "Until cooperating teachers are trained to give directions and to demonstrate activities, their influence on the development of the student teachers' skills should be questioned (p. 413)."
o "The assumption that representatives from the university must also promote an atmosphere of communication, feedback, and reflection if these factors are to be present during student teaching is implied in this study (p. 414)." The authors are referring to the McIntyre & Killian (1986) study on a course on instructional supervision for cooperating teachers and preservice students.
· University Supervisor
o "The master supervisor prescribed instructional and management practices from the perspective of an experienced expert teacher (p. 415)."
o The authors talk about the "training" of supervisors, even though it is rarely addressed in the literature. I would argue that training is a kind of professional development, but it is not entirely on its own professional development. I would need to make that case when I write about the professional development of supervisors.
· Student Teachers' Reflection and Analysis
o "Discussions of success and failure, as perceived by the student teacher, appear to be a fertile area for supervisors to begin activities to strengthen reflectivity. It is clear that student teachers need to begin to clarify their beliefs and to put their beliefs into practice throughout their programs (p. 417)."
o "During student teaching, a primary focus is on supervision; however, the potential for supervision to assist student teacher growth is not met fully due to problems of communication and delineation of roles and responsibilities of all participants (p. 417)."
o "The university supervisor, who by definition is not present on a daily or even weekly basis, may be viewed as a disconnected observer/evaluator, or worse yet, as an uninformed guest in the classroom (p. 417)."
o "Even if open communication exists, however, we have limited understandings of how supervisors can best support teacher growth and development (p. 417)."
· "The central aim of reflection is to improve the education of children by assisting teachers in the improvement of the teaching/learning environment through contemplation on what has been and what should be (p. 418)."
Preparation and Induction
· Qualifications of New Teachers
· Alternate Routes
· Issues for Policy Makers and Teacher Educators
· Professional Development Schools
o PDS has potential to change teacher education and schools.
· The Role of Supervision
o Offer courses for mentoring and coaching to improve teacher effectiveness
Resources to look up:
Brennan 1995 (formalized training of cooperating teachers as supervisors)
Brennan, S. (1995). Making a difference for student teachers through the careful preparation of supervisors. In G.A. Slick (Ed.). Making the difference for teachers: The field experience in actual practice (pp. 93-102).
Copas 1984 (formalized training of cooperating teachers as supervisors)
Copas, E. (1984). Critical requirements for cooperating teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 35(3), 26-30.
Cole & Knowles 1995 (suggest reconceptualization of role of university supervisor)
Cole, A. L., & Knowles, J. G. (1995). University supervisors and preservice teachers: Clarifying roles and negotiating relationships. Teacher Educator, 30(3), 44-56.
Cornbleth & Ellsworth 1994 (formalized training of cooperating teachers as supervisors)
Cornbleth, C., & Ellsworth, J. (1994). Teachers in teacher education: Clinical faculty roles and relationships. American Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 49-70.
Randolph, Slick, & Collins 1995 (formalized training of cooperating teachers as supervisors)
Randolph, D. L., Slick, G. A., & Collins, L. (1995). Development and supervision during practicum placement: A comparative study. The Teacher Educator, 30(4), 16-24.
McIntyre & Killian 1986 (course on instructional supervision for cooperating teachers and teacher candidates)
McIntyre, D. J., & Killian, J. E. (1986). Student teachers' interactions with pupils and cooperating teachers in early field experiences. Teacher Educator, 22(3), 2-9.
Zahorik 1988 (perceptions of the observing-conference role of supervisors)
Zahorik, J. A. (1988). The observing-conferencing role of the university supervisors. Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 9-14.
Metcalf 1991 (university supervisor training is rarely addressed in the literature)
Metcalk, K. K. 91991). The supervision of student teaching: A review of research. The Teacher Educator, 26(4), 27-42.
Glatthorn & Coble 1995 (careful selection of individuals to be university supervisors)
Glatthorn, A. A., & Cobble, C. R. (1995). Leadership for effective student teaching. In G. A. Slick (Ed.). The field experience: Creating successful programs for new teachers (pp. 20-30). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Pullman 1995 (series of workshops for university supervisors and cooperating teachers on writing evals)
Pullman, S. E. (1995). Evaluating student teachers: The formative and summative process. In G. E. Slick (Ed.), The field experience: Creating successful programs for new teachers (pp. 55-73). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
French & Plack (1982) (preparation of graduate students as supervisors)
French, C., & Plack, J. (1982). Efective supervision: A system that works. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 53(3), 43-46.
Lamb & Montague 1982 (training improved the effectiveness of graduate students as supervisors)
Lamb, C. E., & Montague, E. J. (1982). Variables pertaining to the perceived effectiveness of university student teaching supervisors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, Austin, TX.